Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells involved in endothelial health, vasculogenesis and damage repair. Both subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes showed a lower number of EPCs and impaired EPC function, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of these cells in both micro and macrovascular complications, as well as in sexual dysfunctions in diabetes. Several glucose-lowering drugs have been reported to potentially improve EPCs levels and bioreactivity. However, larger and longer studies are needed to better explain the mechanisms involved.