The increased prevalence of diabetes (DM) constitutes a major public health problem, primarily due to its numerous comorbidity and complications. It is widely demonstrated that DM is a significant risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment. Metabolic diseases can influence cognitive functions through multiple interconnected mechanisms. Cerebral insulin resistance, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuroendocrine dysfunctions can further the development of neurodegeneration diseases. The identification of the molecular mechanisms involved represents the target for the founding of early potential markers and new therapeutic targets of neurodegenerative diseases.