Evidence has been accumulated that a different timing in the consumption of meals, namely the chrononutrition, is able to influence the daily metabolic biorhythms, influencing the onset and possibly the treatment of clinical conditions as obesity and diabetes, including the possibility of independently influencing the cardiovascular risk. Behaviors originating from new social customs are able to interfere with these physiological mechanisms activating of genes and proteins that make individuals more or less flexible, capable of adaptation. So, the inability to adapt could favor a higher risk to health. Therefore, chrononutrition is a characteristic of the diet that is important to address further to the amount of energy and macronutrient intake. Once again, even in this area, the Mediterranean dietary style proves to be a healthy reference approach.